Links rapporter artikler om bla. trafficking, vold, kriminalitet, etc.



Sverige: Prostitution i Sverige Huvudrapport Kartläggning och utvärdering av prostitutionsgruppernas insatser samt erfarenheter och attityder i befolkningen
 

8 delrapporter.





Prostitution underInternationalHuman Rights Law:An Analysis ofStates’ Obligationsand the Best Waysto Implement Them.
"Article 6 States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to suppress all forms of traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution of women. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women - CEDAW"





SWEDISH LAWS AND POLICIES ON PROSTITUTION AND TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS: AN OVERVIEW Author Gunilla S. Ekberg B.S.W., J.D., International Human Rights Lawyer



Människohandel för sexuella och andra ändamålTrafficking in human beingsfor sexual and other purposes
Situation Report 11
The Swedish National Police.

Trafficking in humanbeings for sexual andother purposesSituation Report 12
The Swedish National Police.


Trafficking in humanbeings for sexual andother purposes
Situation report 13
The Swedish National Police.




The Impact of Sex Work on Women’sPersonal Romantic Relationships and theMental Separation of Their Work andPersonal Lives: A Mixed-Methods Study
oktober 2015.
"Results Most women (78%) reported that, overall, sex work affected their personal romantic relationships in predominantly negative ways, mainly relating to issues stemming from lying, trust, guilt and jealousy. A small number of women reported positive impacts from sex work including improved sexual self-esteem and confidence. Just under half of women were in a relationship at the time of the study and, of these, 51% reported their partner was aware of the nature of their work. Seventy-seven percent of single women chose to remain single due to the nature of their work. Many women used mental separation as a coping mechanism to manage the tensions between sex work and their personal relationships. Member checking validated the accuracy of the questionnaire data."





Does Prostitution Constrain Sex Crimes?Micro-Evidence from Korea 
Seo-Young Cho, (Philipps-University of Marburg, Germany) October 2015
"Among the potential determinants of prostitution that were tested (table 4), the experience of having forced sex (either with a stranger or a partner) in the past year robustly explains variations in paying for commercial sex during the same period. Those who committed forced sex tend to buy commercial sex between 9.1% and 11.2% more likely than others. Also, having committed sexual assaults increases the probability of buying sex with adults by 6.4% (but the effect of sexual assaults is insignificant when it comes to buying sex with minors). This result provides further evidence of simultaneity between prostitution and sex crimes, in addition to the finding in table 1."




Theory versus reality: Commentary on four articles about traffickingfor prostitution
"Unionization as response to trafficking for prostitution Limoncelli suggests that forming prostitute collectives would make it possible to oversee conditions in sex industries and help to identify trafficked women. While this theory sounds reasonable, that is not the way prostitutes' unions operate in the real world. Many such unions function as advertising agencies for sex industry pimps rather than as watchdogs. Even though they represent only a tiny minority of all women in prostitution, the unions strongly influence public opinion, projecting what men who buy sex want to hear. When journalists, feminist theorists, or politicians want to learn about prostitution, women in prostitutes' unions are approached because they are easier to locate than women who have exited prostitution. Yet there is extremely low membership in prostitutes’ unions in the Netherlands, Germany, and in New Zealand. Most women in prostitution avoid prostitutes' unions because the social stigma of prostitution remains the same regardless of legal status. Furthermore, the unions don’t offer what most women want: alternatives to prostitution."




Comparing Sex Buyers with Men Who Do Not Buy Sex:New Data on Prostitution and Trafficking
Journal of Interpersonal Violence, online publication August 31, 2015
"There is evidence for a connection between sexual aggression and prostitution. Buying sex has been associated with men's perpetration of gender-based violence, including perpetration of physical and sexual violence against intimate partners (Decker et al., 2009; Raj et al., 2008) and perpetration of rape against both partners and nonpartners (Jewkes et al., 2006; Monto & McRee, 2005). College-aged men who used women in prostitution reported having committed more sexually coercive behaviors than men who had not used women in prostitution (Schmidt, 2003). In samples of more than 1000 men each in Chile, Croatia, India, Mexico, and Rwanda, men who had ever paid for sex were more likely to perpetrate rape (Heilman, Herbert, & Paul-Gera, 2014)."
http://prostitutionresearch.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Sex-Buyers-Compared2015.pdf



Garden of Truth:The Prostitution and Trafficking of Native Women in Minnesota

Melissa Farley, Nicole Matthews, Sarah Deer, Guadalupe Lopez, Christine Stark, Eileen Hudon A project of Minnesota Indian Women's Sexual Assault Coalition and Prostitution Research & Education October 27, 2011 William Mitchell College of Law Saint Paul, Minnesota

http://www.prostitutionresearch.com/pdfs/Garden_of_Truth_Final_Project_WEB.pdf






Danmark: Hvidvasksekretariatet& Sporingsgruppen– Danmarks finansielle efterretnings- og efterforskningsenhedårsberetning2011
Om FATF: Rapport om menneskehandel og menneskesmugling Rapporten beskriver hvidvask i relation til de to udbredte former for alvorlig organiseret kriminalitet omhandlende menneskehandel og menneskesmugling. Denne kriminalitet omfatter transport og husning af mennesker ved anvendelse af tvang eller lignende med henblik på udnyttelse af disse mennesker til prostitution, tvangsarbejde, slaveri eller lignende, samt organiseret ulovlige transporter af indvandrere over landegrænser, typisk med henblik på illegalt arbejde i det pågældende land.



Læs også THE FINANCIAL ACTION TASK FORCE (FATF)
Money Laundering Risks Arising fromTrafficking in Human Beingsand Smuggling of MigrantsJuly 2011 

"Case Study 7 Trafficking for sexual exploitation – Hawala system – Nigerian "Madam" – cash courier Two Nigerian citizens were indicted for money laundering among other things. From 2006 to 2008, they handled 1 263 000 EUR stemmed from the proceeds of criminal acts.

 They operated a hawala business. They received the money in cash from various locations in Oslo. The following day, the money could be picked up in Nigeria. The system was based on advance payment and trust and customers were required to pay a transaction fee of 10%. They used Euros in money transactions.

 One of the defendants, living in Denmark, picked up the money in Oslo every four or six weeks (a maximum of 20 000 EUR at a time) and transported it to Nigeria (cash courier). Most of the Nigerian prostitution organisation used this system to send money.

 A large part of this money represented repayment of debts. In addition, money was sent to the families of the prostitutes in contravention of the ban imposed by the “Madam” and the criminals behind.

 In court, it was found that all the prostitutes who used this hawala network were the victims of trafficking.

The evidence produced consisted in seized lists of money transfers. The convicted people were linked to the accounts through fingerprints and the fact that prostitutes recognised them on photographs.

The principle of the hawala system unfortunately means no particular indicator for reporting entities but this ML technique and the issue of the Nigerian “Madames”, which is a typical trend in the trafficking for sexual purposes that can be found in several countries, deserved to be illustrated."






Danmark: Hvidvask i Danmark. Den nationalerisikovurdering2015

"Forbruget af illegale stoffer i den danske befolkning er stagnerende til svagt faldende - dog på et relativt højt niveau sammenlignet med resten af Europa. Det relativt høje forbrug samt høje salgspriser betyder dog fortsat, at narkotikamarkedet vil udgøre en ikke ubetydelig indtægtskilde for organiserede kriminelle aktører. Det samme vil markedet for ulovlige kopiprodukter – såkaldt IPR-kriminalitet – samt i mindre omfang udbytte fra menneskehandel, prostitution og organiseret berigelseskriminalitet."




Australien: Brothel owners and workers have been terrorised by a crime wave targeting eight Sydney premises. "Police confirmed officers were investigating a number of armed robberies in what brothel managers described as an unprecedented crime spree. But they believe the number of attacks might be even greater because some brothels were reluctant to report crimes."








Disabled prostitute rescued from Catalan brothel "In March, police rescued F. B., a 22-year-old Romanian with severe mental disabilities, from one of the largest brothels in Spain. "It doesn't even take 30 seconds of conversation to realize she's disabled," says the same source."



Northern Ireland: EWL welcomes new Bill proposing to make paying for sexual services illegal.



LivaRehab: Unge til salg– Et projekt om gråzoneprostitutionblandt udsatte børn og unge. 2015




Tyskland: Das Prostitutionsgesetz Analyse von Intention und Auswirkungen. 2008



Irland: Houses of the Oireachtas Joint Committee on Justice, Defence and Equality Report on hearings and submissions on the Review of Legislation on Prostitution June 2013 
"A member of the delegation, Senator Katherine Zappone, made the following observations: The size of the industry is dramatically less in Sweden in comparison to other European countries and this has been verified by the all European and international experts. Critics maintain that there is no evidence that this is a result of the law but there is no other determining factor in comparative studies to similar countries such as Denmark."





Eaves: Breaking down the barriers: A study of how women exit prostitution 
"Executive summary
This research demonstrates that women can and do wish to leave prostitution. This is the case for women involved in on-street and off-street locations. There are striking similarities between the circumstances of women in both groups.
This report is the result of a joint Eaves and London South Bank University (LSBU) two-year research project to assess the effectiveness of different interventions designed to support women who want to leave prostitution, including those involved on-street, off-street and those trafficked into prostitution1
. Its goal is to understand the nature, scope and efficacy of
existing approaches to exiting prostitution with the aim of promoting a sustainable, nationwide framework of good practice. An additional outcome of the research has been to develop a better understanding of the complex realities of these women’s lives, their needs, the context in which choices are made, and their motivations to exit. "



Europol: Trafficking in human beings and the internet2014.
The internet facilitates direct exploitation and creates new forms of exploitation. Whole catalogues of exploited women are placed online containing pictures and contact details. Clients can order these women directly online and are also able to pay online in some cases. 






Se p. 86 & 87.






Australien: Project Respect, women matter 2009 - 2011."While the sex industry is legalised in most states and territories of
Australia, legalisation has not removed the harm, violence and
stigma of the sex industry.
The industry also includes trafficked women – women brought
to Australia, kept in slavery, servitude or debt bondage, to do
prostitution. Trafficked women are typically held in debt bondage,
forced to pay off a made-up, legally unenforceable ‘debt’,
commonly between $35,000 and $50,000. This involves 500 to 800
‘jobs’ with clients who they can’t refuse – the women can’t say no to
sex without a condom, anal sex, drunk or violent clients.
Based on research we conducted in 2004, we believe there could
be up to 1000 women trafficked for prostitution, held in slavery-like
conditions, in Australia, every year."






KORTLÆGNING AF PROSTITUTIONSEFTERSPØRGSLEN.Ministeriet for Ligestilling og Kirke
Rambøll 2013.





Sverige: Osynliga synliga aktörer"I ett samtal med Pye Jakobsson, före detta sexarbetare och numera boendestödjare för personer med neuropsykiatriska funktionshinder, så uppger hon att:
Vissa undersökningar som gjorts bland sexarbetare verkar tyda på att det !nns en relativt stor
representation av neuropsykiatriska diagnoser bland människor som arbetar med sex. Jag har
trä"at en hel del människor inom sexindustrin med olika typer av diagnoser som ADHD och
Aspergers syndrom, och !nner det inte särskilt märkligt.







Norge: RAPPORT 2014/30 
Evaluering av forbudet mot kjøp av seksuelle tjenester 
(Summary at English at page 11-14)


"Hovedpunkter
Forbudet mot kjøp av seksuelle tjenester demper etterspørselen og bidrar dermed til å redusere omfanget av prostitusjon i Norge. Forbudet i kombinasjon med straffelovens §202 (hallikparagrafen) og § 224 (lov mot menneskehandel) bidrar til å gjøre Norge til et mindre attraktivt land for prostitusjonsbasert menneskehandel enn det som ville vært tilfelle uten disse tre lovene og håndhevingen av dem. De økonomiske vilkårene for å
drive med prostitusjon i Norge er blitt dårligere. Dette er i tråd med lovenes formål og dermed tilsiktede virkninger av lovene. Vi finner ingen indikasjoner på at volden mot prostituerte har økt som følge av sexkjøpsloven."
"Main findings
The ban on purchasing sexual services has reduced demand for sex and thus contribute to reduce the extent of prostitution in Norway. The enforcement of the law, in combination with the laws against trafficking and pimping, makes Norway a less attractive country for prostitution based trafficking than what would have been the case if the law had not been adopted. Furthermore, the economic conditions for prostitution in Norway are reduced following the implementation of the law. These effects are in line with the intentions of the law and are thus not considered as unintended side effects. This report does not find any evidence of more violence against prostitutes after the ban on buying sex entered into force."
http://www.regjeringen.no/pages/38780386/Evaluering_sexkjoepsloven_2014.pdf










Holland: The Audacity of Tolerance: A Critical Analysis of Legalized Prostitution in Amsterdam’s Red Light District
"Metje Blaak, a former prostitute who now leads the labor union representing prostitutes and advises women in Amsterdam who seek to leave the profession, argues that the new policy under deliberation will only have negative repercussions for the sex trade:“I am really against the registration idea. A lot of women come to me and tell me that if the registration becomes a requirement then they will go underground. I am also against putting the age up to 21 because the pimps will take more illegal routes. I have 22 year olds telling me that they are too old for the work because clients want younger women. Pimps will not wait until women are 21 so the illegal activities will grow.”
Despite the legality of the sex trade here, criminal organizations still profit handsomely from issues related to the current age limit of 18, which Metje describes in detail. Based on her intimate knowledge of the situation, one can only assume that the new policy will indeed further cripple the autonomy of sex workers. The case can be made that the “independent worker” is a myth. No one can truly work independently within a system that requires people to work in specific areas of town, and in certain establishments like sex clubs and window brothels. The selling of sex within these restrictive legal parameters, enforced through registration, detracts from the appeal of working legally. Metje mentions that before prostitution became legal, the women actually had more autonomy over themselves and their work; now, they have less freedom. They are easily controlled, not only by pimps who offer to pay rent and other services, but by the system itself." 






Finland: Abuse of a victim of sex trade Evaluation of the Finnish sex purchase ban 13/2014
"Several arguments have been presented against a comprehensive sex purchase ban; on the basis of the present report, however, they do not seem weighty enough to prevent enactment of such a ban. It has been suggested that a comprehensive ban would drive prostitution and human trafficking underground and strengthen the position of the procurers. However, prostitution cannot disappear from sight altogether, because prostitutes must find buyers and in so doing cannot conceal themselves from the police.
The status and security of persons exploited in prostitution can be better improved by removing the ban on selling sex, by improving efforts to integrate of immigrant women and by developing social services for prostitutes.
 

 The best way to improve the position of persons exploited sexually for financial gain would be to prohibit the purchasing of sex. "






Sverige:  Sweden’s Prohibition of Purchase of Sex: The Law’s Reasons, Impact, and Potential 
2011, Max Waltman, Stockholm University - Department of Political Science








Australien: Inquiry into people trafficking for sex work
2010, Parliament of Victoria - Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee


"Whilst the investigation and prosecution of trafficking crimes is primarily a federal
responsibility, states can play an important role in addressing sex trafficking through
their regulatory oversight of brothels and sex work. Clearly even in jurisdictions where sex work has been decriminalised there is a potential for trafficked women to be found in both licensed and illegal parts of the industry. Strategies therefore need to be devised that minimise the ability for traffickers to operate their trade within Victoria. One of the key aims of this Report is to investigate and recommend ways in which Victoria can assist and support the Commonwealth in addressing this crime and the abuse that occurs as a result."





What Happens When Prostitution Becomes Work?An Update on Legalisation of Prostitution in Australia2005, Mary Sullivan, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, Australia



Center mod menneskehandel, 2013.
"76 OFRE IDENTIFICERET I 2013 - 18 VAR HANDLET TIL TVANGSARBEJDE ELLER KRIMINALITETCenter mod Menneskehandel har netop offentliggjort samlet statistik for 2013.
Flertallet af ofrene, 58 kvinder, har været udnyttet til prostitution, og størsteparten kommer fra Nigeria."





EU: Trafficking in human beings 2013. Eurostat.





EU: DIRECTORATE GENERAL FOR INTERNAL POLICIES
POLICY DEPARTMENT C: CITIZENS' RIGHTS AND CONSTITUTIONAL AFFAIRS
GENDER EQUALITY
Sexual exploitation and prostitution and its impact on gender equality - 2014.




EU - Council of Europe:
Committee on Equality and Non-Discrimination
Rapporteur: Mr José MENDES BOTA, Portugal, Group of the European People's Party
20. marts 2014.
Prostitution, trafficking and modern slavery in Europe"127. Despite the fact that each system presents advantages and disadvantages, I think that policies prohibiting the purchase of sex are those that are more likely to have a positive impact on reducing trafficking in human beings. While acknowledging that each country should hold a thorough discussion on its policy on prostitution and that the final decision must be taken in a sovereign manner, I personally consider the Swedish model as the most successful in the context of tackling human trafficking."
(...)

"Prostitutes are exposed to high risks of extreme violence and even death. Between 2010
and 2012, at least 20 women prostitutes were murdered in Spain, in most cases
with extreme brutality. This figure equates to 5.6% of all femicides which occurred in
that period. In 14 cases, the perpetrators were clients"
http://assembly.coe.int/ASP/Doc/XrefViewPDF.asp?FileID=20559&Language=EN






Stop traffick! Tackling demand for sexual services of Trafficked women and girls
marts 2014 The Immigrant Council of Ireland


"Witnessing exploitation and vulnerability
The fourth part of the research examined the experiences of buyers in witnessing exploitation and vulnerability. Research on buyers’ perceptions and understanding of exploitation and their encounters with exploitation shows that it is not uncommon for buyers to encounter sellers they believe are being exploited. In our research, 222 buyers reported that they had encountered sellers they believed were being exploited, representing nearly one-third of buyers who took part in this research. Amongst the buyers responding to the online survey, a significant number of indicators were identified that led the buyer to believe a seller was being exploited.
In the data, a noticeable gap emerged between the number of buyers who reported encountering sellers they believed were being exploited and buyers who considered contacting the authorities to report such fears. Overall, a large proportion of respondents avoided answering the question of whether they had reported suspicions of trafficking to the authorities or they answered that they had not considered reporting suspicions to the police. 8
Human trafficking The findings from the in-depth interviews in Bulgaria and Lithuania suggest that, irrespective of a buyers’ knowledge of human trafficking as a crime and as a phenomenon, it is unlikely they will consider the possibility that a seller may be a victim of trafficking when purchasing sex. Similarly, knowledge of existing laws specifically targeting buyers of sexual services from trafficking victims appear to have no impact on buyers’ consideration of human trafficking in the act of purchasing of sex."
  http://www.immigrantcouncil.ie/images/stories/documents/STOP_TRAFFICK_-_full_report.pdf





Shifting the Burden 
All-Party Parliamentary Group on Prostitution and the Global Sex Trade

March 2014

Inquiry to assess the operation of the  current legal settlement on prostitution
in England and Wales
http://appgprostitution.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/shifting-the-burden.pdf







DEMAND CHANGE: UNDERSTANDING THE NORDIC APPROACH TO PROSTITUTION 
Coalition Against Trafficking in Women Australia 2013 


"Similar problems of bias have occurred in Queensland and the ACT. In 2012, the

Chair of the Standing Committee on Justice and Community Safety in the ACT took

the extraordinary measure of attaching her dissenting views as an appendix to the

Inquiry into the Prostitution Act report (SCoJCS, 2012), after she felt that other

members of the Committee had ‘played down human rights problems’ associated

with prostitution and ignored evidence that did not fit with the government’s

existing approach of legalisation (SCoJCS, 2012: 153-156). In Queensland (which

also has a legalised system), the Prostitution Licensing Authority has released only

one discussion paper in the last ten years (Wallace, 2010) and it is specifically

designed to discredit the Swedish ban on the purchase of ‘sexual services’. Rather

than relying on evidence, the paper – subtitled ‘the so-called Swedish model’ –

champions legalisation while disparaging prominent women who have publicly

supported the Nordic Model in Australia and overseas."






“Demand and supply, a chain leading to trafficking,” says UN independent expert in new report
"GENEVA (31 May 2013) – “Demands for sexual exploitation, cheap labour and domestic workers, organ removal, illicit adoption and forced marriages, begging or exploitation by armed groups all fuel human trafficking,” the United Nations Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, Joy Ngozi Ezeilo, said in a special report* to the UN Human Rights Council.“However,” the human rights expert underscored, “the demand side should not be understood merely as the demand for sexual, labour or other services of victims of trafficking, but rather more broadly, as an act that fosters any form of exploitation that, in turn, leads to trafficking.”
(...)
"“I urge States to actively monitor the impact and possible side effects of measures to discourage demand and take appropriate action to address any unintended side effects which restrict the exercise of human rights,” she said."


The Law and Economics of International Sex Slavery:
Prostitution Laws and Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation af Niklas Jakobsson & Andreas Kotsadam
University of Gothenburg. 2013.



Capital Exploits: A Study of  Prostitution and Trafficking in  London
Juni 2013, Eaves.




Paying the Price: a consultation paper on prostitution
July 2004, Home Office.





Trafficking in human beings, 2013, Eurostat. 
Rapport om menneskehandel i EU 




Rapporten "Udenlandske kvinder i prostitution i Danmark - Migrantprostituerede og ofre for menneskehandel " udgivet af Center Mod Menneskehandel.


---------


Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?
Seo-Young Cho, Axel Dreher, Eric Neumayer
September 2011 (updated January 2012)

Undersøgelse af 150 landes prostitutionspolitik og antal traffickingsager.





--------------

Ny undersøgelse fra Otago University i New Zealand.

Having multiple sex partners linked to later drug and alcohol  problems

"The findings, which emerge from the long-running Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health & Development Study, show young people are at greater odds of developing these substance disorders with increasing numbers of sexual partners. The odds were much greater for young women. The research is believed to be the first anywhere to examine the effect of multiple sex partners on aspects of mental health in young adulthood in a general population sample."


---------------------


http://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/glotip/Trafficking_in_Persons_2012_web.pdf


------------------

Two Little Girls

Animationsfilm. Den sande historie om to unge piger, der bliver handlet til prostitution. 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=gyMk_SxFYao

"

-------------------

First annual report of  the Inter-Departmental  Ministerial Group on  Human Trafficking


Ny engelsk rapport udgivet i oktober 2012 om bekæmpelse af trafficking.

"Globally, the number of source, transit and destination countries continues to grow and evolve as traffickers seek to avoid detection and exploit new and more profitable opportunities. Demand for cheap labour, cheap goods and services, and demand for prostitution or sexual services continues to provide a thriving environment for organised criminals to operate in. Tackling demand is therefore vital in the fight against human trafficking and is one of the most challenging areas for the UK to address."

-------------


SISTERS SPEAK OUT: THE LIVES AND NEEDS OF PROSTITUTED WOMEN IN CHICAGO.


Jody Raphael og Deborah L. Shapiro Center for Impact Research fra 2002.

222 prostituerede kvinder deltager i denne undersøgelse, der undersøger volden i prostitutionsindustrien og helbredsproblemer.




----------------

Nyeste skotske rapport om trafficking udgivet nov. 2011: Inquiry into Human Trafficking in Scotland.

http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/Scotland/Human_Trafficking_in_Scotland_/inquiry_into_human_trafficking_in_scotland-full-report_pdf_.pdf


"“I was kept in a room with my daughter.  The door to my room was always locked
and I was not allowed out. When men  came [trafficker] would unlock the door
and take my daughter away from the room, she would also tell me to get myself ready.

 …When the men came in the room they would tell me what they wanted. I just did
it because I had to…While I was with these men I could hear my daughter crying in the
other room. It was terrible. When the men were finished they would use the bathroom
and then leave. I never saw any money.

(Interview with trafficking victim)


------------------

Chefen for Europol Robert Wainwright i interview med CNN angående human trafficking. I videoen fremgår det, at der er en sammenhæng mellem trafficking og anden kriminalitet, hvilket stemmer overens med svenskernes erfaringer. Da Sverige ikke længere var attraktive som destination for handlede kvinder, forsvandt også en del af narkohandlerne og andre kriminelle.

http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/world/2011/03/08/shubert.europol.trafficking.cnn


------------------------

Engelsk undersøgelse fra 2000 - 240 prostituerede indgår.
Violence by clients towards female prostitutes in different work settings; questionnaire survey - Church et al.

"The table shows that prostitutes working outdoors were younger, involved in prostitution at an earlier age, reported more illegal drug use, and experienced significantly more violence from their clients than those working indoors (81% (93 of 115) v 48% (60 of 125), χ2=29.2, df=1, P<0.0001). Prostitutes working outdoors most frequently reported being slapped, punched, or kicked, whereas prostitutes working indoors cited attempted rape. Multiple logistic regression showed that working outdoors rather than indoors was associated with higher levels of violence by clients than was the city, drug use, and duration of, or age that women began, prostitution. Prostitutes working outdoors in Glasgow were six times more likely to have experienced recent violence by clients than those working indoors in Edinburgh. Only 34% (52/153) of prostitutes who had experienced violence by clients reported it to the police, and this was reported more often by prostitutes working outdoors than indoors (44% (41of 93) v 18% (11 of 60), χ2=10.4, df=1, P<0.0012). "

-----------------------------

Nyhed Fra Irland 2011.
 Reform needed to end exploitation of women through prostitution and sex trafficking

Irlands nye regering Fine Gael går ind for den svenske model. I artiklen står der noget ganske væsentligt.


" People like to draw a distinction between victims of sex trafficking and women who they like to say have chosen to be involved in prostitution. But the distinction is a blurred one.
We know that women and girls who have been trafficked into Ireland’s sex industry have been found in the same brothels, being exploited by the same pimps and for the gratification of the same punters as women who do not fit the very strict definition of a victim of trafficking.
And the reason for them being in those brothels is the same – because there is a demand from men in Ireland to buy sex, which keeps the sex industry alive."

-----------------------------


Irsk rapport: Immigrant Council of Ireland.
Globalisation, Sex Trafficking and Prostitution: The experiences of migrant Women in Ireland.
http://www.immigrantcouncil.ie/images/stories/Trafficking_Report_FULL_LENGTH_FINAL.pdf
En kritisk gennemgang af prostitutionsbranchen i Irland fra 2009 med henvisninger til Hollands og Sveriges resultater.


-------------------------------


Ny rapport fra 2009
Shifting Sands: A Comparison Of Prostitution Regimes Across Nine Countries.
Af Liz Kelly, Maddy Coy og Rebecca Davenport, London Metropolitan University
http://www.uknswp.org/resources%5Chomeoffshiftingsandscoyetal09.pdf

Australien, Finland, Tyskland, Irland, Holland, New Zealand, Spanien, Sydafrika og Sverige deltager i denne undersøgelse, der grundigt gennemgår og sammenligner de ni lande.


--------------------------

New Zealandsk rapport fra 2004:
The Involvement of Children in Commercial Sexual Activity
af Miriam Saphira.
47 prostituerede mellem 15 og 47 år deltager. Det fremgår af undersøgelsen at over halvdelen af personerne har været udsat for seksuelle overgreb før de startede som prostituerede.



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Under the covers 
Trafficking for sexual exploitation in Wales. 
Amnesty International Protect the Human 2007

------------------------------------

Big Brothel - A survey of The off-street sex industry in London.
The Poppy Project. August 2008 af Julie Bindel og Helen Atkins


"“I would need to artificially lubricate my vagina

because it was dry and painful. Some men would get
aggressive, especially if they were drunk. Somehow I
threatened their maleness”.
(Woman survivor of prostitution, 2007)"


Interview med Siddarth Kara. forsker ved Harvard University’s Carr Center for Human Rights. Hans speciale er trafficking (menneskehandel).


Citat af Siddarth Kara om Trafficking ofre.
"Every year, hundreds of thousands of women and children are abducted, deceived, seduced, or sold into forced prostitution, coerced to service hundreds if not thousands of men before being discarded. These trafficked sex slaves form the backbone of one of the world's most profitable illicit enterprises and generate huge profits for their exploiters, for unlike narcotics, which must be grown, harvested, refined, and packaged, sex slaves require no such “processing,” and can be repeatedly “consumed.”






Artikel fra Skotland.: Prostitution is not a choice: nine out of 10 women want out





Sisyphe
For the Industry of Prostitution : A Victory Disguised as a Defeat

"Meanwhile, some will continue demonizing the abolitionist movement by claiming that it is the laws on prostitution, the police services and the feminists that are responsible for the murders of prostituted persons, and not some men to whom the message is more and more clearly sent that women are sexual objects which they can buy, beat, torture, rape, and get rid of the way they want. From there to killing them, there is only a step which some do not hesitate to cross.

This twisted logic totally denies the fact that violence is growing in all the countries which decriminalized prostitution when women and children were delivered, with complete impunity, to prostituters and pimps, transformed by the law into mere consumers and salesmen of "services". For those who refuse to turn a blind eye, the experiences in the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand and other countries, prove that legalization, regulation or total decriminalization have resulted in the increase of the prostitution of children and adults, and of trafficking (6)."

En anden Sisypheartikel:
Federal Report on Prostitution : The Missing Link fra 2007 om kundens manglende synlighed i prostitutionsundersøgelser og rapporter.



'It's abuse and a life of hell'
Roger Matthews, professor of criminology at London's South Bank University fortæller i denn artikel i The Guardian om prostitution. Artiklen er skrevet af Julie Bindel i 2008.

"Matthews completely disagrees with the notion of legalisation. Instead, he says, the punters should be deterred from buying sex, women in prostitution should be decriminalised, and a radical welfare strategy should be put in place to help them out of the trade. "You can't remove the abuse and coercion from prostitution, whether legal or not," he says, so "the answer is to clamp down on the punters, while helping the women to get out and stay out."

Med andre ord: Den svenske model.



I juni 2010 udgav the Drugs and Crime Prevension Committee i staten Victoria rapporten
Inquiry into people trafficking for sex work. 


PRO senter Oslos udgivelse i 2009
Ny virkelighet - nye muligheter?
Den har interessante tal på siderne 12 - 17.




New Zealands PRA Committees rapport fra 2008.
Report of the Prostitution Law Reform Committee on the Operation of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003.



Fra en anden rapport fra PRA Committee om gadeprostituerede i New Zealand fra 2009: Streetbased Sex Workers
I den kan læses, at reformen intet har ændret med hensyn til vold og voldtægt begået mod de gadeprostituerede.

"The CSOM study found that street-based sex workers are significantly more likely than other sex workers to have experienced violence, threats of violence, to have been raped, had money stolen from them or been held somewhere against their will. Clients are the usual perpetrators of offences against street-based workers."



Den eneste ændring er, at de nu kan melde det til politiet. Det kan selvfølgelig betragtes som et fremskridt men hører snarere til under fundamentale menneskerettigheder som bør gælde for alle, uanset om man er prostitueret eller direktør for nationalbanken.



Hollandske politirapport fra 2008 om prostitutionsbranchen
Schone Schijn - de signalering van mensenhandel in de vergunde prostitutiesector.
Den er på hollandsk men ved hjælp af Google oversætteren kan man få en lille ide om, hvor slemt det står til i den Hollandske prostitutionsbranche.



Center for Information and Research of Organised Crime (Ciroc)  newsletter om menneskehandel fra 2008



Den hollandske nationale rapporteur on trafficking in human beings 2010
Eighth Report presented by the National Rapporteur



Tampeps rapport om Tyskland 2007
Germany National Report on HIV and Sex Work

"Violence - There has been an increase in violence against national and migrant sex workers.




Victims include undocumented migrant sex workers, sex workers who refused to comply with some of the client’s wishes (such as unprotected sex), drug users, and migrants who speak little German. An increase in psychological violence against sex workers was also observed, through cases of debt bondage, residence and working permit issues, etc."


Fra det tyske ministerie for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens Women and Youth.“Health, Well-Being and Personal Safety of Women in Germany”

Se skemaet side 23 og tekst siderne 24 og 25.


Fra samme tyske ministerium 2007:
Bericht zu den Auswirkungen des Gesetzes zur Regelung der Rechtsverhältnisse der Prostituierten



Gewalt gegen Prostituierte toleriert
Mindreårige tvunget ud i prostitution i Tyskland.



http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/issue/acssa_issues8.pdf
Sex workers and sexual assault in Australia
Australsk undersøgelse fra 2008 lavet af Senior Research Officer

Dr Antonia Quadara, Australian Centre for the Study of Sexual Assault at the Australian Institute of Family Studies

" It is argued that ‘sex worker’ neutralises the violence, abuse and coercion involved in the sex industry, assumes that women can make informed and free choices in a world characterised by male oppression, and legitimises men’s right to ‘buy’ women (Jeffreys, 1996; Raymond, 1998; Sullivan, M., 2007)."
Dette citat skal ses i relation til det næste citat fra samme undersøgelse:
"The danger of car jobs has already been mentioned. Escort workers are also isolated in that they must attend a booking on the client’s terms—either their home or a hotel.
Treleavan (1995) noted that the escort industry did have a “very high rate of sexual assault and rape, even murder. Sex workers’ rights groups receive much anecdotal evidence of workers being assaulted and abused by clients and having to run naked through public places, such as hotel lobbies, across roof tops and over balconies, in order to escape with
their lives” (1995, p. 300).
Organisations spoke of instances when an escort worker may step into a booking to discover there are four clients, not just the one who made the call. A scenario such as this has the potential to become extremely violent."
Se også tabellen side 9.



Monash University 2009 - Working in Victorian brothels.
An independent report commissioned by Consumer Affairs Victoria into the Victorian brothel sector.

Læs især kapitlerne 6.6.2 - 6.6.3 og 6.6.4.Kvindehandel med kinesiske, thailandske og koreanske kvinder, låst inde på bordellerne. Ingen kontrol med, hvad der foregår - ingen kontakt til disse kvinder. Ubeskyttet sexkøb. Stor udskiftning af kvinderne på bordellerne.

Kontrolmyndighederne har intet overblik over branchen.




Dr Schloenhardt, The University of Queensland.
UNREGULATED AND ILLEGAL PROSTITUTION IN QUEENSLAND fra 2009


 Schloenhardt har i flere kritiske undersøgelser og rapporter skarpt kritiseret hele branchen og lovgivningen for den manglende kontrol. I følge hans vurdering er kun 1/10 af branchen legal - resten 9/10 er illegal og udenfor kontrol, hvilket understøttes af flere artikler og undersøgelser, bla. Monash Universitys, der er linket til andetsted her på siden.

Schloenhardt har også i 2009 udgivet rapporten
Happy Birthday Brothels. Ten Years Of Prostitution Regulation in Queensland.


A Critical examination of responses to prostitution in four countries: Victoria, Australia; Ireland; the Netherlands; and Sweden.
Julie Bindel og Liz Kelly, Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit, London Metropolitan University 2003


 Endnu en Australsk rapport:
Selling sex; Regulating Prostitution in Queensland. af Anne Edwards, udgivet i 2008.




Danmark:
http://www.politi.dk/NR/rdonlyres/3E0B25B7-FC57-4EF7-A9BA-4B7A500234FF/0/oraganiseret_kriminalitet_danmark2004.pdf



http://www.politi.dk/NR/rdonlyres/03AC91D0-7E4D-4615-880D-C3AA3C23A11C/0/71181_POLITI_0109web.pdf



Servicestyrelsens udgivelse fra 2008 Ingen må vide det - 12 kvinder fortæller om et liv i prostitution.